v. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5
RECIPES TRIED AND TRUE

COMPILED BY THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY OF THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH,MARION, OHIO (1894)

 

"We may live without poetry, music, and art;
We may live without conscience, and live without heart;
We may live without friends; we may live without books;
But civilized man cannot live without cooks."

OWEN MEREDITH,MARION, OHIO:PRESS OF KELLEY MOUNT, 1894.

PREFACE.

Although in putting forth this little book we do not claim that we arefilling a "Long felt want," yet we do feel that its many tried andtrue recipes from our own housekeepers will be very welcome. We alsobelieve that it will not only be welcomed by those who recognize thenames and merits of the various contributors, but by all housekeepers,young and old. There can never be too many helps for those who, threetimes a day, must meet and answer the imperative question, "What shallwe eat?" To the many who have helped so willingly in the compilation of thisbook, the Editorial Committee would extend a grateful acknowledgment. For the literary part of the work, we would beg your indulgence, sincefor each of us it is the first venture in the making of a book.

SOUP

The best soups are made with a blending of many flavors. Don't beafraid of experimenting with them. Where you make one mistake youwill be surprised to find the number of successful varieties you canproduce. If you like a spicy flavor, try two or three cloves, orallspice, or bay leaves. All soups are improved by a dash of onion,unless it is the white soups, or purees from chicken, veal, fish, etc.In these celery may be used. In nothing so well as soups can a housekeeper be economical of theodds and ends of food left from meals. One of the best cooks was inthe habit of saving everything, and announced one day, when her soupwas especially praised, that it contained the crumbs of gingerbreadfrom her cake box! Creamed onions left from a dinner, or a little stewed corn ortomatoes, potatoes fried or mashed, a few baked beans--even a smalldish of apple sauce--have often added to the flavor of soup. Ofcourse, all good meat gravies, or bones from roast or fried meats, canbe added to the contents of your stock kettle. A little butter isalways needed in tomato soup. Stock is regularly prepared by taking fresh meat (cracking the bonesand cutting the meat into small pieces) and covering it with coldwater. Put it over the fire and simmer or boil gently until the meatis very tender. Some cooks say, allow an hour for each pound of meat.Be sure to skim carefully. When done take out meat and strain yourliquid. It will frequently jelly, and will keep in a cold place forseveral days, and is useful for gravies, as well as soups.

A FINE SOUP. MRS. W. H. ECKHART

Take good soup stock and strain it. When it boils add cracker balls,made thus: To one pint of cracker crumbs add a pinch of salt andpepper, one teaspoonful parsley, cut fine, one teaspoonful bakingpowder, mixed with the crumbs, one small dessert spoon of butter, oneegg; stir all together; make into balls size of a marble; place onplatter to dry for about two hours; when ready to serve your soup putthem into the stock; boil five minutes.

ROAST BEEF SOUP. MRS. W. C. BUTCHER

To a good loin roast add six tablespoons of vinegar and small piece ofbutter; salt and pepper; stick six cloves in the roast; sprinkle twotablespoons of cinnamon and sift one cup of flour over it. Put inoven in deep pan or kettle with a quart of boiling water; roast untilit is about half done and then strain over it three-fourths of a canof tomatoes; finish roasting it and when done add celery-salt to suitthe taste, and one cup of sweet cream and some catsup, if preferred.

BEAN SOUP. MRS. H. F. SNYDER.

To one quart of beans add one teaspoon of soda, cover with water, letboil until the hulls will slip off, skim the beans out, throw theminto cold water, rub with the hands, then remove the hulls; drain, andrub until all hulls are removed; take two quarts of water to one quartof beans, boil until the beans will mash smooth; boil a small piece ofmeat with the beans. If you have no meat, rub butter and flourtogether, add to the soup, pour over toasted bread or crackers, andseason with salt and pepper. Add a little parsley, if desired.

BOUILLON. MRS. W. C. DENMAN.

Take three pounds of lean beef (cut into small pieces) and one soupbone; cover with three quarts of cold water, and heat slowly. Add onetablespoon of salt, six pepper corns, six cloves, one tablespoon mixedherbs, one or two onions, and boil slowly five hours. Strain, andwhen cold, remove the fat. Heat again before serving, and season withpepper, salt, and Worcester sauce, according to taste.

LEMON BOUILLON. LOUISE KRAUSE.

A DELICATE SOUP.--Take soup meat, put on to cook in cold water; boiluntil very tender; season with salt. Into each soup plate slice veryfine one hard boiled egg and two or three very thin slices of lemon.Strain the meat broth over this and serve hot, with crackers.

CORN SOUP. MRS. G. H. WRIGHT.

Cover a soup bone with water, and boil one hour. Add some cabbage andonion (cut fine). Boil two hours longer. Add twelve ears of gratedsweet corn. Season to taste.

NOODLE SOUP. MRS. W. H. ECKHART

Beat three eggs. Add a pinch of salt, and flour sufficient for astiff dough; roll into very thin sheets; dredge with flour to avoidsticking; turn often until dry enough to cut; cut very fine, and addto the stock five minutes before serving. Season to taste.

OYSTER STEW. MRS. J. ED. THOMAS.

Wash one quart oysters and place on the fire. When they boil, add onequart of boiling milk, and season with salt, pepper, and plenty ofbutter. Serve with crackers or toast.

POTATO SOUP. MRS. T. H. LINSLEY.

Slice four ordinary-sized potatoes into one quart of boiling water.When done add one quart milk; into this slice one onion. Thicken justbefore serving with one egg rubbed into as much flour as it willmoisten. Pepper and salt to taste.

POTATO SOUP. MRS. U. F. SEFFNER.

After stewing veal, use the stock. Slice four or five potatoes verythin; lay them in cold water until thirty minutes before serving; addthem to the stock, with sufficient salt and pepper. Beat onetablespoon of butter and one tablespoon of flour to cream; add to thisone pint milk; stir in the soup just before serving. This can be madewithout meat by adding more butter and milk.

TOMATO SOUP. MRS. R. H. JOHNSON.

Take half a can, or six large fresh tomatoes; stew until you can passthrough a course sieve. Rub one tablespoonful of butter to a creamwith one tablespoonful flour or corn starch. Have ready a pintscalded milk, into which stir one-half saltspoon soda. Put thestrained tomato into the soup pot; add the butter and flour, afterhaving heated them to almost frying point; let come to a good boil;add just before serving; season with a little pepper, a lump of loafsugar, a dust of mace and a teaspoon of salt.

TOMATO SOUP. MRS. HARRY TRUE.

One quart canned tomatoes, one quart of water, a few stalks of celery;boil until soft. Return to stove, and add three-fourths of a teaspoonof soda and allow to effervesce; then add the liquid from one quart ofoysters, one quart boiling milk and one cup of cream. Salt, butter,and pepper to taste. Boil a few moments and serve.

TOMATO SOUP. MRS. T. H. B. BEALE

Put on soup bone early to boil. Have two quarts of liquor on thebone. When done, remove the bone from kettle; put one can of tomatoesthrough sieve; add to the liquor; then immediately add one-halfteaspoon soda, a small lump butter, one tablespoon white sugar, oneheaping tablespoon of flour mixed with a half cup of cream or milk;salt and pepper to taste. After the flour is in let boil up threetimes, and serve.

VEGETABLE SOUP. MRS. J. S. REED.

One-fourth head cabbage, three large onions, one turnip, three largepotatoes, two tablespoons cooked beans; boil all together till tender.Pour off all water; then add one gallon of stock. Add tomatoes, ifyou like.

VEAL SOUP. MRS. SAMUEL BARTRAM.

Put a veal soup bone over the fire in one gallon of cold water; skimcarefully as it comes to a boil; after it has boiled one hour seasonit with salt and pepper and half teaspoonful (scant) celery seed. Inanother half hour put in one-half cup rice, one medium-sized potato(cut in dice or thin slices), two good-sized onions (sliced fine); letboil one-half hour longer, and when ready to serve add one egg(well-beaten), one-half cup milk, one tablespoon flour; let come to aboil, and serve.

VEGETABLE SOUP. MRS. G. A. LIVINGSTON.

Three onions, three carrots, three turnips, one small cabbage, onepint tomatoes. Chop all the vegetables, except the tomatoes, veryfine. Have ready in a porcelain kettle three quarts boiling water;put in all except tomatoes and cabbage; simmer for one-half hour; thenadd the chopped cabbage and tomatoes (the tomatoes previously stewed);also a bunch of sweet herbs. Let soup boil for twenty minutes; strainthrough a sieve, rubbing all the vegetables through. Take twotablespoonfuls butter, one tablespoon flour; beat to cream. Pepperand salt to taste, and add a teaspoon of white sugar; one-half cupsweet cream, if you have it; stir in butter and flour; let it boil up,and it is ready for the table. Serve with fried bread chips orpoached eggs, one in each dish.

FISH AND OYSTERS

"Now good digestion, wait on appetite,
And health on both." MACBETH.

ACCOMPANIMENTS OF FISH. MRS. DELL WEBSTER DE WOLFE.

With boiled fresh mackerel, gooseberries, stewed. With boiled blue fish, white cream sauce and lemon sauce. With boiled shad, mushroom, parsley and egg sauce. Lemon makes a very grateful addition to nearly all the insipid membersof the fish tribe. Slices of lemon cut into very small dice, stirredinto drawn butter and allowed to come to a boiling point, is a veryfine accompaniment.

RULE FOR SELECTING FISH.

If the gills are red, the eyes full, and the whole fish firm andstiff, they are fresh and good; if, on the contrary, the gills arepale, the eyes sunken, the flesh flabby, they are stale.

BAKED FISH.

Take large white fish or pickerel, make a dressing as for turkey, withthe addition of one egg and a little onion; fill the fish, wrap closewith twine, lay in baking pan; put in one-half pint of water, smalllumps of butter and dredge with flour. Bake from three-fourths to onehour, basting carefully.

CODFISH WITH EGG. MRS. E. P. TRUE.

Wash codfish; shred fine with fingers (never cut or chop it); pourcold water over it. Place the dish on the stove and bring the waterto a boil. Throw the fish in a colander and drain. Stir ateaspoonful of flour smoothly with water; add two tablespoonfuls ofbutter and a little pepper; bring to a boil; then throw in thecodfish, with a well-beaten egg. When it boils up it is ready fortable.

CODFISH WITH CREAM. MRS. E. P. TRUE.

Take a piece of codfish six inches square; soak twelve hours in soft,cold water; shred fine with the fingers; boil a few moments in freshwater. Take one-half pint cream and a little butter; stir into thistwo large tablespoonfuls flour, smoothly blended in a little coldwater; pour over the fish; add one egg, well beaten. Let come to aboil; season with black pepper.

SLIVERED CODFISH.

Sliver the codfish fine; pour on boiling water; drain it off; addbutter and a little pepper. Heat three or four minutes, but do notlet fry.

CODFISH BALLS. MRS. T. H. LINSLEY.

One pint shredded codfish, two quarts mashed potatoes, well seasonedwith butter and pepper--salt, if necessary. Make this mixture intoballs. After dipping them into a mixture of two eggs beaten withone-half cup milk, place them in a dripping pan into which you haveput a little butter; place them in the oven; baste frequently witheggs and milk; bake till a golden brown.

FRIED FISH. MRS. J. S. REED.

Wash the fish and dry well. Take one-half pint of flour and oneteaspoon salt; sift together, and roll the fish in it. Have lard veryhot, and fry quickly. When done roll in a cloth to absorb all grease.

OYSTERS ON TOAST. MRS. JOHN KISHLER.

Toast and butter a few slices of bread; lay them in a shallow dish.Put the liquor from the oysters on to heat; add salt, pepper, andthicken with a little flour. Just before this boils add the oysters.Let it all boil up once, and pour over the toast.

ESCALOPED OYSTERS. EVELYN GAILEY.

Two quarts of oysters; wash them and drain off the liquor; roll somecrackers (not too fine). Put in a pan a layer of crumbs, some bits ofbutter, a little pepper and salt; then a layer of oysters, and repeatuntil the dish is full. Have cracker crumbs on top; turn a cup ofoyster liquor over it; add good sweet milk sufficient to thoroughlysaturate it, and bake three-fourths of an hour.

STEAMED OYSTERS. S. E. G.

Select large oysters; drain; put on a plate; place in the steamer overa kettle of boiling water. About twenty minutes will cook them.Season with pepper and salt; serve on soft buttered toast.

OYSTER GUMBO. ALICE TURNEY THOMPSON.

Cut up a chicken; roll in flour and brown well in a soup-pot, with aspoonful of lard, two slices of ham, one large onion (chopped fine),and a good-sized red pepper. When browned, cover the whole with waterand stew until the chicken is perfectly tender. Then add the liquorof four or five dozen oysters, with water enough to make four quarts.When it has again come to a good boil, add the oysters and stir whilesifting in one large spoonful of fresh file. Salt to taste. Serveimmediately, placing a large spoonful of boiled rice in each soupplate. "Gumbo File" is made of the red sassafras leaves, dried and groundinto a powder.

OYSTER PIE. MRS. ECKHART.

Make a rich pie crust, and proceed as you would to make any pie withtop crust. Have nice fat oysters and put on a thick layer, withplenty of lumps of butter; salt and pepper, and sprinkle over crackercrumbs. Put in the least bit of water, and cover with crust. Bake,and serve with turkey.

OYSTER PIE. MRS. EMMA OGIER.

For crust make a dough as for baking powder biscuit. Take one quartof oysters; remove a half dozen good-sized ones into a saucepan; putthe rest into bottom of your baking dish. Add four spoons of milk;salt to taste, and dot closely with small lumps of butter. Over thisput your crust, about as thick as for chicken pie, and place in ovento bake until crust is well done. Take the oyster left, add one-halfcup water, some butter, salt and pepper; let this come to a boil;thicken with flour and milk, and serve as gravy with the pie.

FRIED OYSTERS. MRS. H. T. VAN FLEET.

Place New York counts in a colander to drain for a few minutes. Witha fork remove them separately to a dry towel. Place another towelover them, allowing them to remain until all moisture is absorbed.Have ready the beaten yolks of three eggs and a quantity of rolledcracker, salted and peppered. Dip each oyster separately, first intoegg, then into cracker. When all have been thus dipped, have ready ahot spider, into which drop four heaping tablespoons of butter. Whenbutter is melted, place in the oysters, one by one; fry a light brown,then turn. Serve very hot.

PIGS IN BLANKET. FRED. LINSLEY.

Take extra select oysters and very thin slices of nice bacon. Seasonthe oysters with a little salt and pepper. Roll each oyster in aslice of bacon; pin together with a toothpick; roast over hot coals,either laid on a broiler, or fasten them on a meat fork and hold overthe coals. Cook until the bacon is crisp and brown. Don't remove thetoothpick. Serve hot.

SOUR FISH. MRS. W. H. ECKHART.

Take a whole fish; stew until tender in salt water; take out, lay onplatter. Throw a handful of raisins in the salt water and a few wholecloves, allspice, stick cinnamon, with vinegar enough to give a sourtaste, and a tablespoonful of sugar. Thicken with flour to theconsistency of gravy; pour over fish. Serve cold. Fish may be servedwith mayonnaise dressing, cooked in same manner.

SALT HERRING. MRS. JUDGE B.

Heat them on gridiron; remove the skin and serve with pepper andmelted butter.

SALMON LOAF. MARGARET LEONARD.

One small can salmon, four eggs beaten light, four tablespoons meltedbutter--not hot--one half cup fine bread crumbs. Season with salt,pepper, and parsley. Chop fish fine, then rub in butter till smooth.Beat crumbs into egg and season before putting with fish. Butter yourmold and steam one hour.

SAUCE FOR SAME.--One cup of milk, heated to a boil; thicken with onetablespoon of corn starch and one tablespoon of butter, beatentogether. Put in the liquor from the salmon and one raw egg, beatenlight; add a little pepper. Put the egg in last, and carefully pourover loaf; Serve hot.

SAUCE FOR FISH. Stir in one cup of drawn butter, the yolks of two eggs (well beaten),pepper and salt, and a few sprigs of parsley. Let it boil. Pour overfish when ready to serve.

SOUR SAUCE FOR FISH. One-half cup butter, with one-half cup vinegar; let boil, then add twomustardspoonfuls of prepared mustard, a little salt, and one egg,beaten together. Make in the farina kettle. Stir while cooking.

BROILED OYSTERS. Place good-sized oysters on pie plates; sprinkle well with flour,small lumps of butter, pepper and salt. Cover with strained liquorand a little cold water. Set in a warm oven fifteen or twentyminutes. Nice to serve with turkey.

OVEN FRIED FISH. MRS. JANE E. WALLACE.

Open and clean fish (white or bass). Have fish pan spread thick withbutter, and lay fish in. Season with salt. Over this pour twowell-beaten eggs, and dredge with flour. Bake three-quarters of anhour, and baste with butter and water. Garnish fish plate withparsley.

ESCALOPED SALMON. CARRIE P. WALLACE.

Pick bones and skin out of one can of salmon, and mince fine. Use asmuch rolled cracker as you have salmon, a little salt, and cup ofcream. Fill sea shells with this mixture, placing a small piece ofbutter on top of each shell. Bake twenty minutes and serve in theshells.

FOWL AND GAME.

"And then to breakfast with what appetite you have."SHAKESPEARE.

ACCOMPANIMENTS FOR FOWLS.

With boiled fowls, bread sauce, onion sauce, lemon sauce, cranberrysauce, jellies, and cream sauce. With roast turkey, cranberry sauce, currant jelly. With boiled turkey, oyster sauce. With wild ducks, cucumber sauce, currant jelly, or cranberry sauce. With roast goose or venison, grape jelly, or cranberry sauce.

A GOOD WAY TO COOK CHICKEN. MRS. R. H. JOHNSON.

Fricassee your chicken, taking care to brown the skin nicely; seasonto taste. When done set by to cool; then remove all the bones; putback into the liquor in which it was cooked; chop fine, leaving in allthe oil of the fowl. If not enough of the oil, add a piece of butter;then pack closely in a dish as you wish it to go to the table.

DROP DUMPLINGS FOR VEAL OR CHICKEN. MRS. R. H. JOHNSON.

One full pint of sifted flour, two even teaspoonfuls of yeast powder,and a little salt. Wet this with enough milk or water to drop fromspoon in a ball; remove your meat or chicken; drop in the balls ofdough; cook five minutes in the liquor; place around the edge ofplatter, with the chicken or meat in center; season the liquor andpour over it.

JELLIED CHICKEN. MRS. R. H. J.

Boil the fowl until the meat will slip easily from the bones; reducethe water to one pint. Pick the meat from the bones in good-sizedpieces; leave out all the fat and gristle, and place in a wet mold.Skim all the fat from the liquor; add one-half box of gelatine, alittle butter, pepper and salt. When the gelatine is dissolved, pourall over the chicken while hot. Season well. Serve cold, cut inslices.

FRIED CHICKEN. MRS. J. ED. THOMAS.

Kill the fowls the night before; clean, cut and set on ice untilneeded the next day. Flour and sprinkle with salt and pepper; pourboiling water over it, and stew three-quarters of an hour. Addsufficient butter to fry a light brown.

CHICKEN PIE.

Take a pair of young, tender chickens and cut them into neat joints.Lay them in a deep pudding-dish, arranging them so that the pile shallbe higher in the middle than at the sides. Reserve the pinions of thewings, the necks, and the feet, scalding the latter and scraping offthe skin. Make small forcemeat balls of fine bread crumbs seasonedwith pepper, salt, parsley, a suspicion of grated lemon peel, and araw egg. Make this into little balls with the hands, and lay themhere and there in the pie. Pour in a cupful of cold water, cover thepie with a good crust, making a couple of cuts in the middle of this,and bake in a steady oven for an hour and a quarter. Lay a paper overthe pie if it should brown too quickly. Soak a tablespoonful ofgelatine for an hour in enough cold water to cover it. Make a gravyof the wings, feet, and necks of the fowls, seasoning it highly;dissolve the gelatine in this, and when the pie is done pour thisgravy into it through a small funnel inserted in the opening in thetop. The pie should not be cut until it is cold. This is nice forpicnics.

CHICKEN PIE. MRS. M. A. MOORHEAD.

Stew the chicken until tender. Line a pan with crust made as youwould baking powder biscuit. Alternate a layer of chicken and piecesof the crust until the pan is filled; add a little salt and pepper toeach layer; fill with the broth in which the chicken was cooked; bakeuntil the crust is done. If you bake the bottom crust before filling,it will only be necessary to bake until the top crust is done. A layerof stewed chicken and a layer of oysters make a delicious pie. Usethe same crust.

DROP DUMPLINGS FOR STEWED CHICKEN. MRS. W. H. ECKHART.

Stew chicken and make a rich gravy with milk or cream. Pour off apart into a separate vessel and thin with water; let it boil, thendrop in dumplings made with this proportion: One quart flour, alittle salt, one egg, two teaspoonfuls baking powder, and milk to makea stiff batter. Stir, and drop from spoon into boiling gravy. Cover,and let boil gently for five minutes. Try them with a fork. Theymust be perfectly dry inside when done. Serve with the chicken.

CHICKEN ON BISCUIT. MRS. H. T. VAN FLEET.

Have prepared for cooking a nice fat fowl about a year old; seasonwith pepper and salt, and boil two hours, or until very tender. Whendone there should be a quart of broth. If there is not that quantity,boiling water should be added. Beat together very smoothly twoheaping tablespoonfuls of flour with the yolk of one egg and one-thirdpint of cold water; add this to broth, stirring briskly all the time;add one tablespoonful of butter. Have ready a pan of hot biscuit;break them open and lay halves on platter, crust down; pour chickenand gravy over biscuit, and serve immediately .

ROAST TURKEY. MRS. J. F. MC NEAL.

Prepare the dressing as follows: Three coffeecups of bread crumbs,made very fine; one teaspoonful salt, half teaspoonful pepper, onetablespoonful powdered sage, one teacup melted butter, one egg; mixall together thoroughly. With this dressing stuff the body andbreast, and sew with a strong thread. Take two tablespoonfuls ofmelted butter, two of flour; mix to a paste. Rub the turkey with saltand pepper; then spread the paste over the entire fowl, with a fewthin slices of sweet bacon. Roll the fowl loosely in a piece of cleanlinen or muslin; tie it up; put it in the oven, and baste everyfifteen minutes till done. Remove cloth a few moments before takingturkey from oven. A young turkey requires about two hours; an old onethree or four hours. This can be tested with fork. Thicken thedrippings with two tablespoonfuls of browned flour, mixed with one cupsweet cream.

OYSTER SAUCE TO BE USED WITH THE TURKEY.--Take one quart of oysters;put them into stew pan; add half cup butter; pepper and salt to taste;cover closely; let come to a boil, and serve with the turkey anddressing.

TURKEY AND DRESSING. MRS. U. F. SEFFNER.

A good-sized turkey should be baked two and one-half or three hours,very slowly at first. Turkey one year old is considered best. Seethat it is well cleaned and washed. Salt and pepper it inside. Takeone and a half loaves of stale bread (bakers preferred) and crumblefine. Put into frying pan a lump of butter the size of an egg; cutinto this one white onion; cook a few moments, but do not brown. Stirinto this the bread, with one teaspoon of salt and one of pepper; letit heat thoroughly; fill the turkey; put in roaster; salt and pepperthe outside; dredge with flour and pour over one cup water.

BONED TURKEY. MRS. R. H. J.

Boil a turkey in as little water as possible until the bones can beeasily separated from the meat; remove all the skin; slice, mixingtogether the light and dark parts; season with salt and pepper. Takethe liquor in which the fowl was boiled, having kept it warm; pour iton the meat; mix well; shape it like a loaf of bread; wrap in a clothand press with a heavy weight for a few hours. Cut in thin sliceswhen served.

ROAST DUCKS AND GEESE.

Use any filling you prefer; season with sage and onion, chopped fine;Salt and pepper. (You can use this seasoning with mashed potatoes fora stuffing). Young ducks should roast from twenty-five to thirtyminutes; full grown ones for two hours. Baste frequently. Serve withcurrant jelly, apple sauce and green peas. If the fowls are oldparboil before roasting.

APPLE STUFFING. MRS. W. H. ECKHART.

Take one-half pint of apple sauce (unsweetened); add one half cup ormore of bread crumbs, some powdered sage, a little chopped onion, andseason with cayenne pepper. Delicious for roast geese, ducks, etc.

CHESTNUT DRESSING. MRS. W. H. ECKHART.

Boil the chestnuts and shell them; blanch them, and boil until soft;mix with bread crumbs and sweet cream; salt and pepper; one cupraisins. Excellent dressing for turkey.

PLAIN STUFFING.

Take stale bread; cut off the crust; rub very fine, and pour over itas much melted butter as will make it crumble in your hand. Salt andpepper to taste. To this you can add one good-sized onion (choppedfine), a cup of raisins, or a little sage.

OYSTER DRESSING.

Make dressing same as above plain stuffing; add one egg and one-halfcan drained oysters. Strain the oyster liquor and use for basting thefowl.

A GOOD SAUCE FOR BIRDS OR VENISON.

Chop an onion fine, and boil it in milk; when done, add the gravy fromthe game, and thicken with pounded cracker.

POTTED PIGEONS OR BIRDS.

Pick, soak, and boil the birds with the same care as for roasting.Make a crust as for chicken pie; lay the birds in whole, and seasonwith pepper, salt, bits of butter, and a little sweet marjoram; flourthem thickly; then strain the water in which they were boiled, andfill up the vessel two-thirds full with it; cover with the crust; cuthole in the center. Bake one hour and a half.

PIGEONS AND PARTRIDGES.

These may be boiled or roasted the same as chickens, only cover thebreasts with thin slices of bacon; when nearly done, remove the bacon,dredge with flour, and baste with butter. They will cook in half anhour.
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